Warm and most air rises up because of its density, making way for cooler and drier air. This is the concept that has facilitated the development of natural draft cooling towers. These have different uses, such as industrial cooling towers, or at large power stations, automobile industries, water treatment plants, chemical industries or even nuclear plants where a huge capacity of cooling water is essential. The stack effect or “chimney” effect is kept in mind for the design of cooling tower, as that is how the whole system works. This cuts out the need for fans or any other electrical devices, thus greatly minimizing the cost of operation maintenance of the cooling tower.
As a result, the industrial cooling towers can be constructed on rooftops or as enormous standalone structures, depending on the requirement of the location.
Since the draft cooling tower operated on the natural atmospheric conditions and air circulation, there is no hot water that is being discharged into nearby rivers or oceans; thus saving the environment as well, as increased water temperatures can kill natural life and vegetation in those areas. The heated air from a cooling tower is dispersed into the atmosphere which is then diffused and scattered over a greater area than it is possible with water. The large area connecting the air inlet and outlet of the draft cooling tower very effectively circumvents any recirculation of tepid air that could result in diminished performance. It is also utilized for the discharge of treated exhaust fumes. This also means that gas reheating is not needed and neither is a chimney necessary.
There are more than 235 natural draft cooling towers in operation worldwide. Maintenance and expenses are very low, durability very high and it is quite environment friendly too as the diffused air is not re-circulated much. These towers do not require fans, motorized implements, or PVC Fills. The installed Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP) louvers are corrosion resistant and are specifically devised decrease spillage and evaporation loss. Galvanised pipes make up the water distributors and the nozzles are either brass or Rigid PVC. Natural draft cooling towers started out as being cylindrical in shape. Gradually, as the designs kept developing, and the towers were made progressively bigger and the shape altered into hyperbolic, since that gives better structural power and resistance to climatic wind flows. The wind force can be significant for a structure of the magnitude of some of these cooling towers.
Natural draft cooling towers depend on natural air circulation. This might impede functioning in winter or areas that experience extended cold climates. However, various thermodynamic zone controls and hydraulic solutions ensure that the draft cooling towers continue to operate smoothly throughout the year in any climate, without any problems.
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